|The following article features coverage from the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. Click here to read more of Oncology Nurse Advisor‘s conference coverage.|
Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieved minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity with venetoclax plus azacitidine had superior survival, when compared with patients who were MRD positive after treatment, according to study results presented at the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.
Researchers evaluated the outcomes of patients from the phase 3 VIALE-A trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02993523) who were treated with venetoclax plus azacitidine, achieved composite complete remission (CRc), and were evaluable for MRD.
There were 286 patients treated with venetoclax and azacitidine, 190 of whom achieved a CRc (defined as CR plus CR with incomplete hematologic recovery).
There were 164 patients who achieved a CRc and were evaluable for MRD — 67 of whom achieved MRD less than 10-3 and 97 of whom did not.
At 12 months, ongoing remissions were observed in 81.2% of MRD-negative patients and 46.6% of MRD-positive patients. The rates at 18 months were 69.6% and 33.5%, respectively. The median duration of response was not reached in the MRD-negative group but was 9.7 months in the MRD-positive group.
The event-free survival (EFS) rate at 12 months was 83.2% in MRD-negative patients and 45.4% in MRD-positive patients. The EFS rates at 18 months were 73.7% and 33.9%, respectively. The median EFS was not reached in the MRD-negative group but was 10.6 months in the MRD-positive group.
The overall survival (OS) rate at 12 months was 94.0% in MRD-negative patients and 67.9% in MRD-positive patients. The OS rates at 18 months were 84.6% and 50.1%, respectively. The median OS was not reached in the MRD-negative group but was 18.7 months in the MRD-positive group.
Grade 3 or higher adverse events that were more common in the MRD-negative group were neutropenia (54% vs 37%) and febrile neutropenia (54% vs 41%).
Disclosures: This research was supported by AbbVie and Genentech. Some study authors declared affiliations with biotech, pharmaceutical, and/or device companies. Please see the original reference for a full list of disclosures.
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Pratz K, Jonas BA, Pullarkat V, et al. Measurable residual disease response in acute myeloid leukemia treated with venetoclax and azacitidine. J Clin Oncol. 2021;39:(suppl 15; abstr 7018). doi:10.1200/JCO.2021.39.15_suppl.7018
This article originally appeared on Cancer Therapy Advisor