What research is being conducted on the relationship between the consumption of HCAs and PAHs and cancer risk in humans?

Researchers in the United States are currently investigating the association between meat intake, meat cooking methods, and cancer risk. Ongoing studies include the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study,19,30 the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study II,31 the Multiethnic Cohort,6 and studies from Harvard University.32 Similar research in a European population is being conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.33

Selected References

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3. Sinha R, Rothman N, Mark SD, et al. Lower levels of urinary 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) in humans with higher CYP1A2 activity.Carcinogenesis 1995; 16(11):2859–2861.

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5. Butler LM, Duguay Y, Millikan RC, et al. Joint effects between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 genotype and dietary carcinogen exposure on risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2005; 14(7):1626–1632.

6. Nöthlings U, Yamamoto JF, Wilkens LR, et al. Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2009;1 8(7):2098-2106.

7. Agudo A, Peluso M, Sala N, et al. Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Carcinogenesis2009; 30(6):968-976.

8. Cai T, Yao L, Turesky RJ. Bioactivation of heterocyclic aromatic amines by UDP glucuronosyltransferases. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2016; 29(5):879-891.

9. Melkonian SC, Daniel CR, Ye Y, et al. Gene-environment interaction of genome-wide association study-identified susceptibility loci and meat-cooking mutagens in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 2016; 122(1):108-115.

10. Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K, Nakagama H, Nagao M. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Science2004; 95(4):290–299.

11. Ito N, Hasegawa R, Sano M, et al. A new colon and mammary carcinogen in cooked food, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Carcinogenesis 1991; 12(8):1503–1506.

12. Kato T, Ohgaki H, Hasegawa H, et al. Carcinogenicity in rats of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Carcinogenesis 1988; 9(1):71–73.

13. Kato T, Migita H, Ohgaki H, et al. Induction of tumors in the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, colon, skin and mammary gland of F344 rats by a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 1989; 10(3):601–603.

14. Ohgaki H, Kusama K, Matsukura N, et al. Carcinogenicity in mice of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, from broiled sardine, cooked beef and beef extract. Carcinogenesis 1984; 5(7):921–924.

15. Ohgaki H, Hasegawa H, Suenaga M, et al. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma and highly metastatic squamous cell carcinomas in the forestomach of mice by feeding 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 1986; 7(11):1889–1893.

16. Shirai T, Sano M, Tamano S, et al. The prostate: A target for carcinogenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) derived from cooked foods.Cancer Research 1997; 57(2):195–198.

17. Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 1982. Retrieved September 27, 2010, from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=371&page=1.

18. Abid Z, Cross AJ, Sinha R. Meat, dairy, and cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition2014; 100 Suppl 1:386S-893S.

19. Cross AJ, Ferrucci LM, Risch A, et al. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: An investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association. Cancer Research 2010; 70(6):2406–2414.

20. Chiavarini M, Bertarelli G, Minelli L, Fabiani R. Dietary intake of meat cooking-related mutagens (HCAs) and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 2017; 9(5). pii: E514.

21. Nagao M, Tsugane S. Cancer in Japan: Prevalence, prevention and the role of heterocyclic amines in human carcinogenesis. Genes and Environment 2016; 38:16.

22. Anderson KE, Sinha R, Kulldorff M, et al. Meat intake and cooking techniques: Associations with pancreatic cancer. Mutation Research 2002; 506–507:225–231.

23. Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Cross AJ, Silverman DT, et al. Meat and meat-mutagen intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 2007; 16(12):2664–2675.

24. Cross AJ, Peters U, Kirsh VA, et al. A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Research 2005; 65(24):11779–11784.

25. Sinha R, Park Y, Graubard BI, et al. Meat and meat-related compounds and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009; 170(9):1165–1177.

26. Bylsma LC, Alexander DD. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer. Nutrition Journal 2015; 14:125.

27. Le NT, Michels FA, Song M, et al. A prospective analysis of meat mutagens and colorectal cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016; 124(10):1529-1536.

28. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.

29. Knize MG, Felton JS. Formation and human risk of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed from natural precursors in meat. Nutrition Reviews 2005; 63(5):158–165.

30. Kabat GC, Cross AJ, Park Y, et al. Meat intake and meat preparation in relation to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. International Journal of Cancer 2009; 124(10):2430–2435.

31. Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(2):211–216.

32. Wu K, Sinha R, Holmes M, et al. Meat mutagens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women—A cohort analysis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2010; 19(5):1301–1310.

33. Rohrmann S, Zoller D, Hermann S, Linseisen J. Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort. British Journal of Nutrition 2007; 98(6):1112–1115.

Source: Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.

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