What angiogenesis inhibitors are being used to treat cancer in humans?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a number of angiogenesis inhibitors to treat cancer. Most of these are targeted therapies that were developed specifically to target VEGF, its receptor, or other specific molecules involved in angiogenesis. Approved angiogenesis inhibitors include:
- Axitinib (Inlyta®)
- Bevacizumab (Avastin®)
- Cabozantinib (Cometriq®)
- Everolimus (Afinitor®)
- Lenalidomide (Revlimid®)
- Lenvatinib mesylate (Lenvima®)
- Pazopanib (Votrient®)
- Ramucirumab (Cyramza®)
- Regorafenib (Stivarga®)
- Sorafenib (Nexavar®)
- Sunitinib (Sutent®)
- Thalidomide (Synovir, Thalomid®)
- Vandetanib (Caprelsa®)
- Ziv-aflibercept (Zaltrap®)
Do angiogenesis inhibitors have side effects?
Side effects of treatment with VEGF-targeting angiogenesis inhibitors can include hemorrhage, clots in the arteries (with resultant stroke or heart attack), hypertension, impaired wound healing, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (a brain disorder), and protein in the urine. Gastrointestinal perforation and fistulas also appear to be rare side effects of some angiogenesis inhibitors.
Antiangiogenesis agents that target the VEGF receptor have additional side effects, including fatigue, diarrhea, biochemical hypothyroidism, hand-foot syndrome, cardiac failure, and hair changes.
Source: National Cancer Institute.
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