Testicular germ cell tumor risk elevated with exposure to X-ray and CT below the waist, GI series or barium enema.
Poor outcomes include lower response rate to chemotherapy, higher mortality, recurrence.
As current guidelines only include a weak recommendation to offer perioperative chemotherapy to patients with muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma, a new meta-analysis including evidence up to February 2020 provides potentially useful information.
Avelumab improves overall and progression-free survival among patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma whose disease has not progressed while on first-line chemotherapy.
Survival was significantly improved in patients with greater disease burden.