Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (Fact Sheet)

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (Fact Sheet)

This fact sheet reviews the PSA test for prostate cancer, in particular screening recommendations, test limitations, and possible improvements the future may hold in store for the test.

Rates of Nonrecommended Screenings for Prostate and Breast Cancers Is High Among Older Patients

Among persons 65 years or older with limited life expectancies of less than 10 years, an estimated 15.7% may have undergone nonrecommended screenings for prostate and breast cancers.

CRPC: Enzalutamide Better Than Bicalutamide for Improving PFS

CRPC: Enzalutamide Better Than Bicalutamide for Improving PFS

Enzalutamide significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer progression or death in prostate cancer.

Some Improvements in Survival, Skeletal Events Seen in Clinical Trial of Docetaxel Combo

Some Improvements in Survival, Skeletal Events Seen in Clinical Trial of Docetaxel Combo

Phase 3 results of the TRAPEZE trial of patients with bony metastatic castrate-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC).

Lethal Prostate Cancer Risk Lower With Regular Aspirin Use

Lethal Prostate Cancer Risk Lower With Regular Aspirin Use

The risk of lethal prostate cancer, but not of overall, high-grade, or advanced cancers, was reduced with regular aspirin use.

Novel Diagnostic Test Uses CTCs in Blood to Guide Treatment Decisions for Patients With Prostate Cancer

An experimental liquid biopsy using a blood sample may determine which patients with prostate cancer will benefit from hormone therapies.

Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment Information Inadequate for Most Men

Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment Information Inadequate for Most Men

Important discussions about prostate cancer screening and treatment are not occurring between men and their health care team.

In mCRPC, Docetaxel Active After Antiandrogen Therapy

A total of 40% of patients with mCRPC treated with docetaxel after abiraterone achieved at least a 50% reduction in PSA, according to a study presented at the 2016 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium.

Active Surveillance Criteria for Early Prostate Cancer May Not Be Accurate in African American Men

Active Surveillance Criteria for Early Prostate Cancer May Not Be Accurate in African American Men

African American men with Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer produce less PSA and have significantly lower PSA density than white men, according to a new study. These findings could have important implications for treatment decision-making.

Risks of Adverse Effects Lower With Surgical Castration Vs. Chemical Castration for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Surgical castration via orchiectomy for metastatic prostate cancer is associated with lower risks for adverse effects compared with medical castration via GnRHa therapy.

Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Is Higher Among Twins

Twins carry a significant excess familial risk for cancer overall and for specific types of cancer, including prostate, melanoma, breast, ovary, and uterus, according to a long-term follow-up study of twins in Nordic countries.

GnRH Agonists Associated With Higher Adverse Effect Risk vs Orchiectomy

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy is associated with increased risks of numerous clinically relevant adverse events compared with orchiectomy.

Intermittent ADT for Prostate Cancer Does Not Reduce Long-term Effects

A study compared the number of adverse events caused by both intermittent and continuous androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer.

Patients' Expectations After Radical Prostatectomy May Be Unrealistic

Patients with prostate cancer who have undergone radical prostatectomy have largely unrealistic expectations with respect to their postoperative sexual function.

Docetaxel With Long-term Hormone Therapy Improves Survival in Prostate Cancer

Docetaxel should be added at initiation of standard of care treatment in men with prostate cancer; however, no evidence of survival improvement was seen with zoledronic acid therefore it is not recommended as part of standard of care for this patient population.

Tumor Location and Duration of Therapy Influence Palliative Effects of Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

Tumor Location and Duration of Therapy Influence Palliative Effects of Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

In a review of the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study results, stratified for primary tumor location, palliative radiation therapy was found to reduce pain and improve quality of life for some patients.

Repeating PSA Test in Select Patients Can Mitigate Controversial Issues in Prostate Cancer Screening

Repeating PSA Test in Select Patients Can Mitigate Controversial Issues in Prostate Cancer Screening

Some task forces advocate abandoning the use of the screening PSA test because it leads to unnecessary prostate biopsies. Canadian researchers show that repeating the test in select patients can reduce the number of biopsies.

Age and Cancer Site Influence Excess Financial Burden of Cancer Survivorship

Economic burden is significantly higher for survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers compared with persons with no cancer history; however, excess economic burden attributable to cancer varies by cancer site and age.

Medical Records Reveal Alzheimer Diagnoses Higher Among Patients Receiving ADT for Prostate Cancer

In a study that demonstrates the emerging technique of extracting biomedical data from ordinary patient medical records, a nearly 2-fold increase was seen in the rate of Alzheimer disease diagnoses among men with prostate cancer who received ADT.

Soccer Strengthens Bones of Men With Prostate Cancer

Men with prostate cancer are at risk for brittle bones as an adverse effect of their treatment; however, 1 hour of soccer training a few times a week counters many of the negative effects of treatment.

Novel Imaging Agent More Effectively Monitors Impact of Treatment in Lung, Prostate Cancers

Novel Imaging Agent More Effectively Monitors Impact of Treatment in Lung, Prostate Cancers

A method to better trace changes in cancers and treatment of the prostate and lung without the limitations associated with radiation has been developed.

Vigorous Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Habits May Protect Against Lethal Prostate Cancer

Vigorous Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Habits May Protect Against Lethal Prostate Cancer

A study that tracked tens of thousands of midlife and older men for more than 20 years has found that vigorous exercise and other healthy lifestyle habits may reduce their chances of developing a lethal type of prostate cancer by up to 68%.

Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Active Surveillance May Not Be Properly Monitored

Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Active Surveillance May Not Be Properly Monitored

Men undergoing active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer may not be receiving proper monitoring.

Rates of PSA Screening and Early Stage Prostate Cancer Are Declining

Rates of PSA Screening and Early Stage Prostate Cancer Are Declining

The impact on PSA screening and prostate cancer incidence before and after the 2012 USPSTF screening recommendations were examined in two recent studies.

Yoga May Increase Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

Yoga May Increase Quality of Life for Prostate Cancer Patients

A small study shows those undergoing radiation therapy had fewer side effects and less fatigue when practicing yoga.

New Blood Test Improves Screening for Prostate Cancer

New Blood Test Improves Screening for Prostate Cancer

A new test is better at detecting aggressive prostate cancer than measuring PSA levels. The new test discovers aggressive cancer earlier and reduces the number of false positive tests and unnecessary biopsies.

Blood Test Identifies Mutations Behind Drug Resistance in Patients Taking Antiandrogen for Prostate Cancer

Scientists developed a blood test that can identify key mutations driving resistance to a widely used prostate cancer drug and which patients will not respond to the treatment in advance.

Yoga May Reduce Side Effects in Patients Receiving Treatment for Prostate Cancer

Yoga May Reduce Side Effects in Patients Receiving Treatment for Prostate Cancer

Patients who are undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer may benefit from yoga.

PSA Screening Rates Have Declined Since 2012 USPSTF Recommendation Update

PSA Screening Rates Have Declined Since 2012 USPSTF Recommendation Update

Both the incidence of early stage prostate cancer and rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening oincide with the 2012 USPSTF recommendation.

ADT Associated With Self-reported Physical Functioning, Muscle Strength Decline

ADT Associated With Self-reported Physical Functioning, Muscle Strength Decline

Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with declines in self-reported physical functioning and upper body muscle strength.

Study Reveals Wide Variation in Costs of Radiation Treatments for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

Study Reveals Wide Variation in Costs of Radiation Treatments for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

The cost of treatment for low-risk prostate cancer varies widely. A new study examined the cost of care from when a patient checks in for his first appointment through his posttreatment follow-up testing via the use of time-driven activity-based costing.

Patient Age, Tumor Risk Associated with Expectant Management Use for Veterans With Prostate Cancer

Patient Age, Tumor Risk Associated with Expectant Management Use for Veterans With Prostate Cancer

For veterans with early-stage prostate cancer, patient age and tumor risk were found to be more strongly associated with use of expectant management.

Racial Differences in Outcomes and Costs of Care in Older Men with Prostate Cancer

Racial Differences in Outcomes and Costs of Care in Older Men with Prostate Cancer

Older black men with localized prostate cancer were more likely to have poorer quality care, incur higher costs, and have worse postoperative outcomes than white men. However, that did not translate to worse overall or cancer-specific survival.

Antiandrogen Therapy (AAT) Improves Survival In Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Prostatectomy

Antiandrogen Therapy (AAT) Improves Survival In Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Prostatectomy

Overall survival in men with rising PSA levels after prostatectomy for prostate cancer was statistically improved by adding a 24-month course of AAT during and after salvage radiotherapy, compared with salvage radiotherapy alone.

Shortened Radiotherapy Schedule Has Similar Benefit as Longer Schedule for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

Clinical trial results confirm that newly diagnosed early stage prostate cancer can be treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and experience the same level of cancer control as those treated with conventional radiotherapy.

Metastatic Prostate Cancer With DNA-Repair Defects Responded to Treatment With Olaparib

Metastatic Prostate Cancer With DNA-Repair Defects Responded to Treatment With Olaparib

A high response rate was seen among patients whose metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers had DNA-repair defects.

Prostate Tumors Reprogram, Instead of Rewrite, DNA Code to Form Tumors

Scientists have gained a key insight into how prostate tumors get their start. Instead of rewriting the normal DNA code, the master regulator of genes in prostate cells is reprogrammed to drive malignant growth.

Black Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Surgery More Likely to Experience Adverse Events

Black Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Surgery More Likely to Experience Adverse Events

Black patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) are more likely to experience adverse events.

ASTRO: Men's Health Supplements Not Helpful for Prostate Cancer

ASTRO: Men's Health Supplements Not Helpful for Prostate Cancer

No reduction in risk of distant metastasis, cancer-related deaths, radiation-linked adverse effects were connected to the use of men's health supplements (MHSs).

Testosterone Therapy Does Not Increase Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk

Testosterone Therapy Does Not Increase Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk

Use of testosterone therapy has increased in the last decade and the potential long-term risks associated with this therapy have been of concern.

Newly Identified Gene Mutations May Expand Indications for Existing Targeted Cancer Treatments

Newly Identified Gene Mutations May Expand Indications for Existing Targeted Cancer Treatments

Researchers identified two new cancer-causing gene mutations that could lead to more targeted and effective treatments for certain lung and prostate cancers.

Molecular Imaging Study Reveals Improved Detection of Early Stage Recurrent Prostate Cancer

Molecular Imaging Study Reveals Improved Detection of Early Stage Recurrent Prostate Cancer

In the study, management was changed in 44% more cases by Use of the imaging agent Ga-68 PSMA with PET/CT resulted in a change in management of prostate cancer in 44% more cases than with another widely used agent.

Androgen deprivation therapy associated with increased risk for fatal heart attack

Androgen deprivation therapy associated with increased risk for fatal heart attack

Evidence suggests that androgen deprivation therapy is associated with nonfatal cardiovascular events.

More men at risk for prostate cancer as a result of less regular screening

More men at risk for prostate cancer as a result of less regular screening

A recent study examined the potential benefits and potential downsides to the USPSTF recommendation against regular PSA screening.

Electronic trigger reduces delays in evaluation for cancer diagnosis

Electronic triggers designed to search for key data were able to identify and reduce follow-up delays for patients being evaluated for a diagnosis of colon or prostate cancer.

PET imaging detects fast-growing prostate cancer

PET imaging detects fast-growing prostate cancer

A molecular imaging biomarker is able to detect fast-growing primary prostate cancer.

Mushroom powder may have potential for prostate cancer treatment

Mushroom powder may have potential for prostate cancer treatment

Treatment with mushroom powder led to reduction in prostate-specific antigen level in some patients with biochemical recurrence.

Two-drug combination boosts survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer

A combination therapy increased survival rates for individuals with newly diagnosed metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

Tell me about your prostate cancer symptoms ... Will most men talk or walk?

Tell me about your prostate cancer symptoms ... Will most men talk or walk?

Approximately 97% of men with advanced prostate cancer report being comfortable discussing their symptoms with their health care team. But the number of men who actually do so is significantly lower.

Long-term denosumab therapy safe for patients with breast, prostate cancer

Long-term denosumab therapy safe for patients with breast, prostate cancer

No new safety signals were identified for long-term denosumab therapy in patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer and bone metastases.

ADT impacts mood of patients with prostate cancer, as perceived by partners

ADT impacts mood of patients with prostate cancer, as perceived by partners

Androgen deprivation therapy negative impacts the mood of patients with prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer not likely to be cause of death in men with low-risk disease

Prostate cancer not likely to be cause of death in men with low-risk disease

Relatively unaggressive prostate tumors are not likely to develop into metastatic disease or result in death.

New biomarker in breast and prostate cancer may help identify patients who will respond to taxanes

New biomarker in breast and prostate cancer may help identify patients who will respond to taxanes

Researchers have pinpointed a novel genetic biomarker responsible for the progression of many breast and prostate cancers.

Risk of cancer in the prostate gland may be caused by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during organ development

A prostate organoid grown from human embryonic stem cells has enabled researchers to show that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase prostate cancer risk.

Molecular tinkering doubles cancer drug's efficacy

By surrounding molecules of paclitaxel with self-assembling spheres composed of amino acids, researchers doubled tumor exposure to the drug and reduced its effects on healthy tissue.

Prostate cancer treatment is trending toward risk-specific therapies

Patients receiving treatment for prostate cancer are now more likely to receive medical care matched to their level of risk.

Radiotherapy costs vary among Medicare patients with breast, lung, prostate cancers

Radiotherapy costs vary among Medicare patients with breast, lung, prostate cancers

Cost of radiotherapy among Medicare patients varied most widely because of year of diagnosis, location of treatment, clinic type, and provider.

Study findings do not support association between prostate cancer incidence and shift work

Shift workers do not develop prostate cancer more frequently than their day-shift colleagues, research indicates.

Genomic fingerprint may predict aggressive prostate cancer in African Americans

Genomic fingerprint may predict aggressive prostate cancer in African Americans

African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than European American men, and are also more than twice as likely to die from it.

Comparison of zoledronic acid dosing schedules finds less frequent schedule noninferior

Comparison of zoledronic acid dosing schedules finds less frequent schedule noninferior

ASCO 2015: 12-week dosing schedule of zoledronic acid is noninferior to a more-frequent schedule of every 4 weeks.

Researchers identify lynchpin molecule for prostate cancer metastasis

Researchers identify lynchpin molecule for prostate cancer metastasis

A single molecule appears to be the central regulator driving metastasis in prostate cancer.

Black men twice as likely to die from prostate cancer compared to white men

Black men twice as likely to die from prostate cancer compared to white men

Black men are twice as likely to be diagnosed with, or die from, prostate cancer in their lifetime compared to white men.

Research findings differentiate prostate cancer tumors into five different types

Research findings differentiate prostate cancer tumors into five different types

Prostate cancer has five distinct types, with different ways to determine which type of tumor a patient has.

Sensor technology can improve accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis

Sensor technology can improve accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis

A sensor chip, able to pick up on differences in glycoprotein molecules, can improve accuracy and efficiency of prostate cancer diagnosis.

More patients with prostate cancer being treated appropriately based on risk

More patients with prostate cancer being treated appropriately based on risk

Patients with prostate cancer are now more likely to receive medical care matched to risk level.

Low-risk prostate cancer cases often upgraded at prostatectomy

Low-risk prostate cancer cases often upgraded at prostatectomy

A recent study indicates a high rate of clinical upgrading at prostatectomy, based on over ten thousand patients reviewed.

Dose-escalated radiation does not benefit patients with low-risk prostate cancer

Dose-escalated radiation does not benefit patients with low-risk prostate cancer

Higher radiation dose is associated with improved survival rates among men with medium- and high-risk prostate cancer.

Surveillance being utilized more for prostate cancer

Surveillance being utilized more for prostate cancer

Many men with low-risk disease being spared prostatectomy, radiation, and androgen deprivation monotherapy in favor of active surveillance.

Expectant management of very low-, low-risk prostate cancer is effective, but underused

Expectant management of very low-, low-risk prostate cancer is effective, but underused

Using watchful waiting or active surveillance to monitor men with very low- and low-risk prostate cancer is effective in many patients with localized tumors and could prevent aggressive and unnecessary treatments.

Rate of new prostate cancer diagnoses drops

Rate of new prostate cancer diagnoses drops

New diagnoses of prostate cancer have declined in the U.S. following the 2011 USPSTF draft recommendation regarding the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screenings.

Age-adjusted comorbidity score stratifies mortality in prostate cancer

Age-adjusted comorbidity score stratifies mortality in prostate cancer

Age-adjusted prostate cancer-specific comorbidity index is strongly predictive of other-cause mortality, according to recent study data.

Chemotherapy may be the preferred option for some patients with advanced prostate cancer

Chemotherapy may be the preferred option for some patients with advanced prostate cancer

In a small clinical trial, scientists found that men with advanced prostate cancer and detection of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) respond to chemotherapy just as well as men who lack the variant.

New evidence demonstrates link between smoking, prostate cancer prognosis

New evidence demonstrates link between smoking, prostate cancer prognosis

Association between smoking and development of various forms of cancer well established; however, evidence of prostate cancer link contradictory.

Study shows significant decline in prostate cancer diagnoses

Study shows significant decline in prostate cancer diagnoses

Prostate cancer diagnoses in the United States dropped 28% in year following USPSTF draft recommendation.

Western diet may increase risk of death after prostate cancer diagnosis

Adopting or retaining a Western-style diet after a prostate cancer diagnosis does little to improve cancer-related mortality or overall mortality, when compared to a healthier diet.

Chemo may be preferred option for some with advanced prostate cancer

Chemo may be preferred option for some with advanced prostate cancer

Men with advanced prostate cancer who possess AR-V7 respond just as well to chemotherapy as those who lack AR-V7.

Emotional distress may motivate patients to undergo prostate cancer surgery unnecessarily

Emotional distress may motivate patients to undergo prostate cancer surgery unnecessarily

Emotionally distressed men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to opt for surgery.

Novel test combines two markers with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for improved prostate cancer detection

Novel test combines two markers with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for improved prostate cancer detection

A new test that employs urine analysis demonstrated improved prostate cancer detection over traditional models based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.

Fee-for-service health care may lead to higher risks in robotic prostate surgery

Hospitals may invest in expensive, robot-assisted surgical models for performing radical prostatectomies (RARPs), but patients may benefit more from an experienced surgeon performing traditional open surgery.

Cancer survivors have evolving information needs

Depending on the type of cancer faced, the needs of survivors can vary.

Androgen deprivation therapy may lead to cognitive impairment in prostate cancer patients

Men who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have an increased chance of experiencing impaired cognitive function.

Optimal Sequencing for Chemotherapy and Radium 223 for Prostate Cancer Under Debate

Optimal Sequencing for Chemotherapy and Radium 223 for Prostate Cancer Under Debate

When is chemotherapy or radium 223 the optimal treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer?

Why do some prostate cancer patients experience more hot flashes?

Why do some prostate cancer patients experience more hot flashes?

Researchers are examining what factors might make patients with prostate cancer more likely to experience hot flashes during and after therapy.

Combined radiation and hormone therapy improves survival in node-positive prostate cancer

Combined radiation and hormone therapy improves survival in node-positive prostate cancer

Men with prostate cancer that has spread to nearby lymph nodes may find the addition of radiation therapy to treatments that block the effects of testosterone beneficial.

BRCA-targeting drug has benefit in prostate cancer

Trials results indicate that the pioneering drug olaparib, which targets inherited mutations, can be beneficial for men with prostate cancer.

ASCO: Docetaxel with hormone therapy may improve outcomes

ASCO: Docetaxel with hormone therapy may improve outcomes

Combination of docetaxel and hormone therapy can extend life by almost a year for prostate cancer patients, according to new research.

Unemployment associated with increase in prostate cancer-associated deaths

Unemployment associated with increase in prostate cancer-associated deaths

Rises in unemployment are associated with increases in deaths due to prostate cancer.

Ad-REIC Gene Therapy: Promising Results in a Patient with Metastatic CRPC Following Chemotherapy

Ad-REIC Gene Therapy: Promising Results in a Patient with Metastatic CRPC Following Chemotherapy

[Clinical Medicine Insights] In this case study, a 63-year-old man with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) was successfully treated for two years with in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk‑3 gene.

Men treated with ADT more likely to experience impaired cognitive performance

Men treated with ADT more likely to experience impaired cognitive performance

Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer more likely to demonstrate impaired cognitive performance.

Permanent radiotherapy implants reduce risk of prostate cancer recurrence after 5 years

The use of permanent radioactive implants (brachytherapy) with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer doubled the chances of those individuals to be cancer-free 5 years later.

Hormonal therapy plus radiation increases survival in node-positive prostate cancer

Hormonal therapy plus radiation increases survival in node-positive prostate cancer

Addition of radiotherapy to hormonal therapy may improve survival in men with node-positive prostate cancer.

Patients with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy may benefit from statins

Patients with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy may benefit from statins

Statin use may slow prostate cancer progression in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, but more trials are needed to confirm benefits, researchers say.

Statin drugs deny prostate cancer cells access to needed hormones, delaying disease progression

Statin drugs deny prostate cancer cells access to needed hormones, delaying disease progression

Statins were shown to delay disease progression in men with prostate cancer when statins were also initiated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Treating periodontal disease may reduce prostate inflammation

Treating periodontal disease may reduce prostate inflammation

Treating gum disease reduced symptoms of prostate inflammation.

Use of postsurgical radiotherapy for prostate cancer declining despite evidence of benefit

Postsurgical radiation therapy for prostate cancer at risk of recurrence is declining in the United States, despite evidence that it can be helpful.

Under- and over-imaging suspected in prostate cancer care

Under- and over-imaging suspected in prostate cancer care

For men with nonmetastatic castration resistant prostate cancer with a negative bone scan after diagnosis, factors associated with a second bone scan include higher PSA, shorter PSA doubling time, and faster PSA velocity; but under- and over-imaging may also be a factor.

Study finds $1 test using gold nanoparticles outperforms PSA screen for prostate cancer

Study finds $1 test using gold nanoparticles outperforms PSA screen for prostate cancer

An inexpensive, quick-result test has been shown in recently published studies to be more sensitive and more exacting than the current standard test for early stage prostate cancer.

Brachytherapy decreases risk of prostate cancer five-year recurrence

Brachytherapy decreases risk of prostate cancer five-year recurrence

Men with prostate cancer who received permanent radioactive implants (brachytherapy) were twice as likely to be cancer-free 5 years later.

Implementing decision aids affects care decisions in urology

Implementation of video-based decision aids for men lowered rates of elective surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and decreased rates of active treatment for localized prostate cancer.

Sweeping prostate cancer review upends widely held belief on radiation after surgery

Two studies do not show protective effect of delayed radiation compared to earlier radiation for prostate cancer.

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