ONS Connections: Participatory nutrition education effective for patients with gastrectomy

PHOENIX—Patients with gastrectomy who participated in nutrition education had improved knowledge, oral intake, adherence to diet guidelines, and patient satisfaction compared with patients who received usual nutrition education. This research was presented at the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Connections: Advancing Care Through Science conference.

Weight loss and hardship in improving nutritional status are inevitable for patients with gastrectomy, who have partial or total loss of their stomachs. Preventing morbidities caused by malnutrition requires increasing oral intake and adhering to diet guidelines. However, no resources were previously available for outpatients. Patient participation is known to be an effective strategy to motivate patients, though the efficacy of a participatory education program had not previously been investigated.

This randomized study involved 48 patients assigned either to the participatory nutrition program (n=26), or to usual nutrition education (n=22). Participants had underwent gastrectomy, were adult-age, could read and write in Korean, and had no other compounding illnesses. This study sought to evaluate the effects of nutrition education in which patients participated on knowledge, oral intake, adherence to diet guidelines, and patient satisfaction. The program used the concept of participatory control and applied adult learning theory.

The participatory nutrition program included tailored nutritional information, diet planning with patient participation that involved types of food and cooking styles, and planning actions to practice the diet guidelines. The patients received the intervention through two face-to-face nutritional education sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over a 12-week time period. Tests occurred two and 12 weeks after hospital discharge. The oral intake of the patients was calculated by computer through a three-day-recall diet diary.

The patients in the participatory nutrition education had significantly increased knowledge, oral intake, adherence to diet guidelines, and patient satisfaction compared with the control group. Participatory nutrition education for patients with gastrectomy was proven to positively effect outcomes.
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