Genomics

HPV status and intra-tumor heterogeneity mark improved patient outcomes in HNSCC

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Combining Mutant-Allele Tumor Heterogeneity (MATH) as a biomarker with a patient's HPV status provides an effective indicator of improved patient outcome.

Gene sequencing discovers common driver of childhood brain tumor ependymoma

Gene sequencing discovers common driver of childhood brain tumor ependymoma

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The most common genetic alteration ever reported in the brain tumor ependymoma has been identified. Researchers also have evidence that the alteration drives tumor development.

Normal enzyme aids a mutant enzyme to fuel blood cancer's growth

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Researchers report that a normal enzyme called SYK pairs with FLT3, the most commonly mutated enzyme found in acute myelogenous leukemia, to promote progression of the disease.

Advanced approach invented to ID drug candidates from genome sequence

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In research that could ultimately lead to many new medicines, scientists have developed a potentially general approach to design drugs from genome sequence. As a proof of principle, they identified a highly potent compound that causes cancer cells to attack themselves and die.

Unexpected cell-hijack method revealed in pancreatic cancer

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Pancreatic stellate cells, which normally aid tissue repair, unwittingly help pancreatic cancer grow and spread in a method of cell hijack only seen before in brain and breast cancer, according to new research. The research also revealed that the process can be blocked, thereby preventing the growth and spread of the tumor.

Key cellular pathway in prostate cancer identified

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The protein SPOP, which is most frequently mutated in human prostate cancers, is a key regulator of androgen receptor activity that prevents uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate and thus helps prevent cancer.

New target found for triple-negative breast cancer

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A new study shows that targeting a particular nuclear protein may provide an effective approach for treating triple-negative breast cancer.

Possible genetic markers uncovered in breast cancer that spreads to the brain

Possible genetic markers uncovered in breast cancer that spreads to the brain

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Possible genetic origins of breast cancer that spreads to the brain have been uncovered, according to a first-of-its-kind study.

Small noncoding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer

Small noncoding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer

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Small noncoding RNAs can be used to predict if a person has breast cancer, concluded researchers who contributed to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project.

Direct-to-consumer genomic testing concerns raised

Direct-to-consumer genomic testing concerns raised

Concerns related to direct-to-consumer genomic testing include lack of evidence for association studies being appropriate as screening tests.

Oncogene driving liver cancer identified as UHRF1

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By combining a zebrafish model of liver cancer with data from human tumors, researchers hope to identify potential genes of interest that can be targeted for new treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Subtypes of HER2-positive breast cancer with varying sensitivities identified

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Research has not only shown that HER2-positive breast cancer can be classified into four different subtypes, but has also unmasked a subtype showing both a greater response to and increased benefit from chemotherapy and anti-HER2 therapy.

Nanoparticles deliver one-two punch to targeted areas of cancer cells

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Researchers have developed a technique for creating nanoparticles that carry two different cancer-killing drugs into the body and then delivers those drugs to separate parts of the cancer cell where they will be most effective.

Systematic and comprehensive genomic study of cervical cancer completed

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Researchers from Boston, Massachusetts; Mexico; and Norway have completed a comprehensive genomic analysis of cervical cancer in two patient populations.

CAR cell engineering offers hope for patients with hard-to-treat blood disorders

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The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cell engineering was described in several studies presented at the 2013 ASH Annual Meeting in New Orleans.

Breast cancer prognosis associated with oncometabolite accumulation

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The metabolic profile of cancer cells can be used to develop therapies and identify biomarkers associated with cancer outcome. New research has discovered an association between the oncometabolite 2-HG levels, DNA methylation patterns, and breast cancer prognosis.

Sensitizing endometrial tumors to PARP inhibitors

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Modulating the hormonal environment in which endometrial cancers grow could make tumors significantly more sensitive to a new class of drugs known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, according to new research.

Melanoma treatment enhanced by translated laboratory findings

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Critical insights into how melanoma tumors resist BRAF inhibitors were gained from two back-to-back studies. Two key areas are the cell-signaling pathways BRAF-mutant melanoma cells use to become resistant to inhibitor drugs and to evolve and develop drug resistance.

TCGA data allows better predictions for colorectal cancer

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Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas categorizes colorectal cancers and paves the way for the development of targeted therapies.

Tumor genetics customize treatments for deadly prostate cancer

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A new study is using genomic sequencing to develop customized treatments for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Inherited gene variation tied to high-risk pediatric leukemia

Inherited gene variation tied to high-risk pediatric leukemia

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An inherited gene variation has been linked to a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtype that is associated with a poor outcome.

Liver cancer progenitor cells identified before tumors can be detected

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Researchers have isolated and characterized the progenitor cells that give rise to malignant hepatocellular carcinoma tumors long before the actual tumors can be detected.

Identifying disease-causing mechanisms in cancer of unknown primary improves treatment

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Both treatment and survival are improved when a tumor whose primary site is unknown has its molecular profile identified.

Brain tumors in children have a common cause

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When 96 pilocytic astrocytomas were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing, all had MAPK-pathway alterations. This indicates that pilocytic astrocytoma is predominantly a single-pathway disease.

Further research needed into lung cancer in female never-smokers

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Lung cancer in women who have never smoked is more frequently associated with EGFR mutations and estrogen receptor overexpression, according to a new study.

Molecular subtyping identifies breast cancer patients not benefiting from neoadjuvant chemo

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A group of patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer who do not benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy have been identified by molecular subtyping.

Mapping the future for cancer research: TCGA project

Mapping the future for cancer research: TCGA project

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The Cancer Genome Atlas has the potential to generate unprecedented amounts of data on the major cancers and subtypes of cancer.

Using genomic testing to steer clinical treatment decisions

Using genomic testing to steer clinical treatment decisions

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Improved understanding of how to integrate the results into the treatment planning process is changing the course of treatment for some patients.

Similar genetic origins for some aggressive prostate cancers

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Next generation genomic analysis has determined that some of the more aggressive prostate cancers have similar genetic origins, according to a recent publication

Genomic regions associated with higher testicular cancer risk identified

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Four newly identified genetic variants are associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer, according to a new study that examined the genomes of over 13,000 men.

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