Genomics

New approach identifies cancer mutations as targets of effective melanoma immunotherapy

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A new approach demonstrated that the recognition of unique cancer mutations appeared to be responsible for complete cancer regressions in two metastatic melanoma patients treated with a type of immunotherapy.

Protein inhibition opens door for pancreatic cancer treatment

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The protein galectin-1 has been identified as a possible therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer; new research has demonstrated that inhibiting this protein in mice with pancreatic cancer increased survival by 20%.

Genetic profile and potential drug susceptibility of breast cancer cells revealed by CTCs

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Circulating tumor cells captured with a microchip-based device can be cultured to establish cell lines for genetic analysis and drug testing.

New study reveals signaling pathway that can lead to cancer

New study reveals signaling pathway that can lead to cancer

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered how cholesterol activates a cellular signaling pathway linked to cancer development. Previous studies have associated high cholesterol with certain cancers. But in this study, the researchers focused on the signaling pathways used to direct cell function.

New drug active against most aggressive type of lung cancer

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Scientists have shown that a new drug could prove useful in treating small cell lung cancer, the most aggressive form of lung cancer.

Gene mutation may lead to treatment for liver cancer

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Two genetic mutations in liver cells may drive tumor formation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), the second most common form of liver cancer, according to new research.

Scientists bring personalized medicine for breast cancer one step closer

Scientists bring personalized medicine for breast cancer one step closer

The era of personalized medicine for breast cancer may be just around the corner, thanks to recent advances by USC Stem Cell researcher Min Yu and scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Radiation-induced toxicity risk in prostate cancer predicted by variations in key gene

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Key genetic variants may affect how cancer patients respond to radiation treatments, according to a new study.

A Single Protein Could Unlock New Treatments For Brain Cancer

A Single Protein Could Unlock New Treatments For Brain Cancer

New research shows the protein neurons use to stay alive and healthy is used by brain cancer cells to maintain longevity to grow and metastasize. The findings could lead to breakthroughs in treatments for brain cancer.

Report offers a primer for clinical use of genome and exome sequencing

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New genome-based technology for the diagnosis of rare genetic illnesses is moving rapidly from research laboratories into general medical practice.

Genomics vs genetics: How are they different?

Genomics vs genetics: How are they different?

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This overview offers a simple guide for explaining to patients the difference between the terms, the tests, and what the results may mean.

Genomics of lung cancer progression vary widely

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Tumor sequencing of several different lung cancers and their surrounding tissue complicates the prevailing theory of linear lung cancer progression and offers new insights for management of this deadly cancer.

Molecular tumor board helps in advanced cancer cases

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With accelerating development of personalized cancer treatments matched to a patient's DNA sequencing, proponents of these treatments say frontline physicians increasingly need help finding the best individualized therapy.

Cancer-specific stem cell identified for gastric cancer

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Scientists have identified the cancer-specific stem cell that causes gastric cancer. This discovery opens up the possibility of developing new drugs for the treatment of this disease and other types of cancers.

Blood test may detect solid cancers rapidly and accurately

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A blood sample could one day be enough to diagnose many types of solid cancers, or to monitor the amount of cancer in a patient's body and responses to treatment.

Epigenetic therapy clinically active against several blood cancers

Epigenetic therapy clinically active against several blood cancers

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Patients with a variety of hematologic cancers benefited from treatment with OTX015, a member of a new class of investigational epigenetic therapies that block the activity of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET)-bromodomain proteins.

HPV status and intra-tumor heterogeneity mark improved patient outcomes in HNSCC

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Combining Mutant-Allele Tumor Heterogeneity (MATH) as a biomarker with a patient's HPV status provides an effective indicator of improved patient outcome.

Gene sequencing discovers common driver of childhood brain tumor ependymoma

Gene sequencing discovers common driver of childhood brain tumor ependymoma

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The most common genetic alteration ever reported in the brain tumor ependymoma has been identified. Researchers also have evidence that the alteration drives tumor development.

Normal enzyme aids a mutant enzyme to fuel blood cancer's growth

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Researchers report that a normal enzyme called SYK pairs with FLT3, the most commonly mutated enzyme found in acute myelogenous leukemia, to promote progression of the disease.

Advanced approach invented to ID drug candidates from genome sequence

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In research that could ultimately lead to many new medicines, scientists have developed a potentially general approach to design drugs from genome sequence. As a proof of principle, they identified a highly potent compound that causes cancer cells to attack themselves and die.

Unexpected cell-hijack method revealed in pancreatic cancer

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Pancreatic stellate cells, which normally aid tissue repair, unwittingly help pancreatic cancer grow and spread in a method of cell hijack only seen before in brain and breast cancer, according to new research. The research also revealed that the process can be blocked, thereby preventing the growth and spread of the tumor.

Key cellular pathway in prostate cancer identified

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The protein SPOP, which is most frequently mutated in human prostate cancers, is a key regulator of androgen receptor activity that prevents uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate and thus helps prevent cancer.

New target found for triple-negative breast cancer

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A new study shows that targeting a particular nuclear protein may provide an effective approach for treating triple-negative breast cancer.

Possible genetic markers uncovered in breast cancer that spreads to the brain

Possible genetic markers uncovered in breast cancer that spreads to the brain

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Possible genetic origins of breast cancer that spreads to the brain have been uncovered, according to a first-of-its-kind study.

Small noncoding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer

Small noncoding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer

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Small noncoding RNAs can be used to predict if a person has breast cancer, concluded researchers who contributed to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project.

Direct-to-consumer genomic testing concerns raised

Direct-to-consumer genomic testing concerns raised

Concerns related to direct-to-consumer genomic testing include lack of evidence for association studies being appropriate as screening tests.

Oncogene driving liver cancer identified as UHRF1

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By combining a zebrafish model of liver cancer with data from human tumors, researchers hope to identify potential genes of interest that can be targeted for new treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Subtypes of HER2-positive breast cancer with varying sensitivities identified

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Research has not only shown that HER2-positive breast cancer can be classified into four different subtypes, but has also unmasked a subtype showing both a greater response to and increased benefit from chemotherapy and anti-HER2 therapy.

Nanoparticles deliver one-two punch to targeted areas of cancer cells

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Researchers have developed a technique for creating nanoparticles that carry two different cancer-killing drugs into the body and then delivers those drugs to separate parts of the cancer cell where they will be most effective.

Systematic and comprehensive genomic study of cervical cancer completed

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Researchers from Boston, Massachusetts; Mexico; and Norway have completed a comprehensive genomic analysis of cervical cancer in two patient populations.

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