Diagnostic Tests

Pathology Reports (Fact Sheet)

Pathology Reports (Fact Sheet)

This fact sheet examines pathology reports, including tissue collection methods, the ways in which tissue samples may be processed, and details typically included in such reports.

Recurrence Score Appears To Be Driving Personalized Treatment for Breast Cancer

Recurrence Score Appears To Be Driving Personalized Treatment for Breast Cancer

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The recurrence score assay stratifies early stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by recurrence risk. This study assessed how clinicians use the recurrence score to recommend adjuvant systemic therapy or patients' experiences with testing decision-making.

Epigenetic Profiling Improves Identification of Primary Tumor in CUP

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DNA methylation profiling identified the primary cancer in cases of cancer of unknown primary, informing tumor-type specific treatment that improved overall survival in these patients.

Ratio of Biomarkers on Imaging Identifies Aggressiveness of DCIS

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A new technique combines imaging and mathematics to identify aggressive forms of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), or stage 0 breast cancer, from nonaggressive varieties.

Computer Algorithm Matches Skilled Specialists in Detecting Early Esophageal Cancer

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Using a computer algorithm to scan images of the esophagus for signs of early esophageal cancer is nearly as accurate as top specialists.

PET/CT Hybrid Imaging Technique Provides Accurate Guide for Prostate Cancer Biopsy

PET/CT Hybrid Imaging Technique Provides Accurate Guide for Prostate Cancer Biopsy

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Prostate-specific molecular imaging at initial biopsy and preoperative planning can accurately determine and delineate the extent of prostate cancer. The imaging technique was a type of PET/CT called 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

Lung Cancer Signature Detected Via Breath Test Improves Early Diagnosis

Lung Cancer Signature Detected Via Breath Test Improves Early Diagnosis

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Breath analysis offers an option for both primary screening and postsurgery monitoring of patients with lung cancer. Exhaled breath has certain carbonyl VOCs that indicate the presence of lung cancer in a process researchers hope will receive FDA approval.

New WHO Glioma Classification Can 'Optimize Patient Treatment Going Forward'

New WHO Glioma Classification Can 'Optimize Patient Treatment Going Forward'

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The 2016 WHO Classification of Infiltrating Gliomas alters diagnostic criteria, providing the basis for clinical trial inclusion or exclusion based on an integrated diagnosis and setting the stage for all future research, according to a summary of 4 posters related to CNS biomarkers presented at the ASCO 2016 Annual Meeting.

Nuclear Imaging Offers Noninvasive Assessment of Early Stage Cervical Cancer

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In patients with cervical cancer who do not have enlarged lymph nodes, SPECT-MRI imaging of their sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) could assess whether metastases are present.

Urine Test Accurately Identifies Tumor Grade in Prostate Cancer

Urine Test Accurately Identifies Tumor Grade in Prostate Cancer

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A new urine assay that can detect genetic changes correlated with prostate cancer correctly identified cancer grade in 92% of men with elevated PSA levels and high-grade cancers.

Altered Metabolism of Four Compounds Drives Glioblastoma Growth

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The altered metabolism of methionine, tryptophan, kynurenine, and 5-methylthioadenosine can drive the development of glioblastoma. Results also suggest ways to treat the cancer, slow its growth, and precisely elucidate its extent.

Pill Improves Breast Imaging to Light Up Cancer

Pill Improves Breast Imaging to Light Up Cancer

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Scientists are developing a pill that illuminates only cancerous tumors, improving on current methods that can identify tumors but cannot conclusively determine whether they are cancerous

Disparities Related to Race, Insurance, and Facility Type Affect Use of Genetic Assay in Breast Cancer

Disparities Related to Race, Insurance, and Facility Type Affect Use of Genetic Assay in Breast Cancer

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Use and clinical implications of a test commonly used to predict the aggressiveness of early stage ER-positive breast cancer is influenced by patient's race, insurance, and type of facility.

Biomarker Tests Hindered by Lack of Sufficient Evidence and Regulation

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Precision medicine aims to deliver the most appropriate treatment to individual patients; however, biomarker tests that are poorly validated or inappropriately applied could hinder administration of appropriate treatments, and in some cases motivate the use of harmful treatment.

Significant Gap in Sequencing Limits the Potential of Precision Medicine

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Despite improvements in genomic sequencing technologies, a significant number of medically important genes are within genomic regions in which sequencing lacks the technical accuracy to generate reliable reads.

Metabolic Phenotyping of Blood Plasma Enables Lung Cancer Detection

Metabolic Phenotyping of Blood Plasma Enables Lung Cancer Detection

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Unique metabolic biomarkers specific to lung cancer were found through metabolic phenotyping of blood plasma by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR), enabling diagnosis of both early-stage and late-stage disease.

Imaging Analysis Nearly Matches Genetic Tests in Determining Need for Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer

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A new analysis method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data appears to reliably determine whether patients would need hormonal treatment only or also need chemotherapy.

Newly Approved NSCLC Diagnostic Assay Accurately Assesses for Treatment Options

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An immunohistochemistry (IHC) test for rearrangements of the gene for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor performed more accurately than another commonly used IHC assay, including reducing the rate of false positives.

Diagnostic Tool Can Smell Bladder Cancer or Prostate Cancer in a Urine Sample

Diagnostic Tool Can Smell Bladder Cancer or Prostate Cancer in a Urine Sample

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Recent developments in a gas chromatography tool might allow doctors to determine whether urologic cancers are present via a urine sample.

Nanotechnology May Enable Detection of Biomarkers, Facilitate Cancer Diagnosis

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A new technology detects disease biomarkers in the form of nucleic acids, which are the molecules that comprise DNA and RNA. The test zeroes in on microRNA, which can signal a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

Novel Technique Detects Persistent Leukemia in Patients Previously Thought to be in Remission

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Persistent chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously thought to be in remission can be detected with digital polymerase chain reaction.

<i>BRCA</i> Mutation Testing Rates on the Increase in Young Women

BRCA Mutation Testing Rates on the Increase in Young Women

Among young women diagnosed with breast cancer, frequency of testing 95 percent in 2013

Risk of Ovarian Cancer Predicted With Fine-tuned Test

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A recent study fine-tuned the popular Simple Rules ultrasound test for ovarian cancer.

More Precise Cancer Predictions Are the Goal of New Guidelines for Precision Medicine

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Given to the importance of improved cancer predictors, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has established first-of-its-kind guidelines for the practice of precision medicine.

Inconclusive: The Pulmonary Nodules You Need to Follow

Inconclusive: The Pulmonary Nodules You Need to Follow

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A program in a multifacility health care system is designed to enhance early detection of lung cancer through follow-up of nodules seen on thoracic imaging studies.

Circulating Tumor DNA More Effective Than LDH at Detecting Metastatic Melanoma Progression, Recurrence

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Metastatic melanoma disease activity may be monitored via circulating tumor DNA, which has higher sensitivity than lactate dehydrogenase for detecting disease progression.

Novel Diagnostic Test Uses CTCs in Blood to Guide Treatment Decisions for Patients With Prostate Cancer

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An experimental liquid biopsy using a blood sample may determine which patients with prostate cancer will benefit from hormone therapies.

Novel Test Offers Diagnostic and Disease Monitoring Potential for Rare Childhood Brain Cancer

A noninvasive, low-cost blood test was developed to help doctors diagnose some types of malignant childhood tumor. It could also enable treatment monitoring without exposing patients to repeated doses of radiation.

Mix of Cell Types in Cancer Tumor Samples May Bias Genomic Analyses

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Genetic analyses and other tests performed by both researchers and physicians can be significantly skewed when normal cells, especially immune cells, are intermixed with cancerous cells in a tissue sample.

Additional Breast Cancer Tumors Found on MRI After Mammography May Be Larger, More Aggressive

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Additional breast cancers found with MRI are sometimes larger and potentially more aggressive than those found on mammography, and in some cases, may necessitate a change in treatment plan.

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